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In the south the Central Valley is closed off by the transverse ranges, most notably the Tehachapi Mountains , which are regarded as a dividing wall between southern and central California.
Most of eastern California is desert. The sparsely settled northeastern corner of the state is a jumble of barren plains and mountains, as well as a volcanic plateau.
In the east-central region is the Trans-Sierra desert, which extends along the sheer east escarpment of the Sierra Nevada range and comprises part of the vast interstate Great Basin of the Basin and Range Province.
The Trans-Sierra desert ranges from 2, to 7, feet to 2, metres above sea level. Its largest towns are in the Owens Valley, which was a fertile farmland until its groundwater flow was diverted to Los Angeles through a mammoth series of conduits built in — The Sierra Nevada rises just to the west of the Trans-Sierra desert.
The eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada is sheer, dropping some 10, feet 3, metres within a mile km stretch near Owens Lake. On the west the range slopes in gradually declining foothills toward the Central Valley , comprising the San Joaquin and Sacramento river valleys.
From the wall that rises near Lassen Peak in the north, the Sierra Nevada extends south for miles km to the fringes of Los Angeles.
Aside from Mount Whitney 14, feet [4, metres] above sea level , 10 other peaks in the Sierra Nevada exceed 14, feet 4, metres in elevation.
East-west passes are few but high; some are found at more than 9, feet 2, metres in elevation. There are three national parks in the Sierra Nevada: Kings Canyon , Sequoia , and Yosemite.
The last, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in , rises from the purplish foothills of the Mother Lode Country and extends through the ice-carved valleys of the Merced and Tuolumne rivers.
Its valleys feature waterfalls and granite domes. Davidson, John The origin and the meaning of the name California.
San Francisco: Geographical Society of the Pacific. Translated by William Thomas Little. Binghamton, New York : Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton.
Ford, Tirey L. Dawn and the Dons; The Romance of Monterey. San Francisco, California: A. Hale, Edward Everett March The Atlantic Monthly.
Hale, Edward Everett 30 April Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society at the Hall of the American Academy in Boston : 45— Retrieved 27 July Polk, Dora Beale The Island of California: A History of the Myth.
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Putnam, Ruth Herbert Ingram Priestley ed. California: the name. Berkeley: University of California.
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Current Time in California, United States. What Time Is It In California, United States? DST Time Zone Map. One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh.
After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States.
Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route".
His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California.
After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado.
The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parlay.
There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other.
As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship.
This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States. In , a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt.
Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic" at Sonoma.
The Republic's only president was William B. Ide ,  who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt.
This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.
The California Republic was short lived;  the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican—American War — Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces.
Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo February 2, that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah.
The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico.
In , the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,, plus about , Native Americans, down from about , before Hispanic settlement in In , only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances.
Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands.
The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush.
By the time of California's application for statehood in , the settler population of California had multiplied to , By , more than , settlers had come.
The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from until The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O.
In , a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital.
The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose — Subsequent locations included Vallejo — , and nearby Benicia — ; these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well.
The capital has been located in Sacramento since  with only a short break in when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.
Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.
Congress for admission to statehood. During the American Civil War — , California sent gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union.
Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California Company" , due to a majority of their members being from California.
At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat.
Nineteen years afterwards, in , shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in California was then easy to reach.
Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown including oranges in Southern California , and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.
As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers.
Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.
Between and , the California state government paid around 1. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.
Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo , have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.
Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route In the period from to , the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union.
In , the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6. To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts ; the Oroville and Shasta Dams ; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state.
The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in to develop a highly efficient system of public education. Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the s.
California manufactured 8. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California.
The San Francisco earthquake and St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U. S history. Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued.
The brown haze known as " smog " has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.
An energy crisis in led to rolling blackouts , soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism.
More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties.
Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble burst in as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended.
Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.
California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley , bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south.
The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta , the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River , while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River.
Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.
Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait , which flows into San Pablo Bay , a northern extension of San Francisco Bay , which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait.
The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast , while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco. To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake , an essential migratory bird habitat.
In the western part of the state is Clear Lake , the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier , the southernmost glacier in the United States.
The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. A remnant of Pleistocene -era Lake Corcoran , Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses.
About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests,  and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.
California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5, years old.
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.
The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River , from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.
A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California ; or the Los Angeles area , the Riverside-San Bernardino-Inland Empire , or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California.
The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast.
As part of the Ring of Fire , California is subject to tsunamis , floods , droughts, Santa Ana winds , wildfires , landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.
It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37, earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.
Aerial view of the California Central Valley. Potato Harbor, named for its distinctive ovular and bumpy shape,  on Santa Cruz Island. The coastline along Laguna Beach in Southern California.
Mojave National Preserve. The Sacramento—San Joaquin River Delta viewed from above, with the Sacramento River above and San Joaquin River below.
Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate , due to the state's large size the climate ranges from polar to subtropical.
The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers.
The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent.
Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast.
The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean.
Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes.
Northwestern California has a temperate climate , and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast.
The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.
California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters.
The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not.
This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka , the extreme heat of Death Valley , and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada.
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.
California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood Lyonothamnus floribundus.
Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation , whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac Ceanothus.
Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing , and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.
California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees , the tallest trees , and the oldest trees.
California's native grasses are perennial plants. Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert ; upper Sonoran foothill regions and some coastal lands , transition coastal areas and moist northeastern counties ; and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde.
The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters.
Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants.
Nemophila , mint , Phacelia , Viola , and the California poppy Eschscholzia californica , the state flower also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.
The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood Sequoia sempervirens and the "big tree" or giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum , among the oldest living things on earth some are said to have lived at least 4, years.
Tanbark oak , California laurel , sugar pine , madrona , broad-leaved maple , and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern , alumnroot, barrenwort , and trillium , and there are thickets of huckleberry , azalea , elder, and wild currant.
Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip , and tiger and leopard lilies. The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine , red fir , and lodgepole pine to thrive.
Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here.
Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus , acacia , pepper tree , geranium, and Scotch broom.
The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower , Antioch Dunes evening primrose , Solano grass , San Clemente Island larkspur , salt marsh bird's beak , McDonald's rock-cress , and Santa Barbara Island liveforever.
In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit , kangaroo rat , squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl , roadrunner , cactus wren , and various species of hawk.
The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper , desert tortoise , and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope , brown-footed woodrat , and ring-tailed cat.
Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher , bushtit , and California condor. In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer , black bears , gray foxes , cougars , bobcats , and Roosevelt elk.
Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too.
Birds such as the kingfisher , chickadee, towhee , and hummingbird thrive here as well. The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel , snowshoe hare , and several species of chipmunks.
Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay , Sierra chickadee , Sierra hermit thrush , water ouzel , and Townsend's solitaire.
As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.
Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer , coyote , mountain lion , northern flicker , and several species of hawk and sparrow.
Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow , golden , and cutthroat.
Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass , yellowfin tuna , barracuda , and several types of whale.
Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox , Point Arena mountain beaver , Pacific pocket mouse , salt marsh harvest mouse , Morro Bay kangaroo rat and five other species of kangaroo rat , Amargosa vole , California least tern , California condor , loggerhead shrike , San Clemente sage sparrow , San Francisco garter snake , five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish.
Eleven butterflies are also endangered  and two that are threatened are on the federal list. California has a total of , acres 1, The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River , which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley.
The two rivers join in the Sacramento—San Joaquin River Delta , flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento—San Joaquin system, including the Pit River , Feather River and Tuolumne River.
The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively.
The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California.
The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona. Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project , providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California.
The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of California was 39,, on July 1, , a 5.
Between and , there was a natural increase of 3,, 5,, births minus 2,, deaths. California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.
Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan , is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States.
Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.
The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow , Kern County. The state has incorporated cities and towns, of which are cities and 22 are towns.
Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of Name " or "Town of Name ".
Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas : the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area , the San Francisco Bay Area , the Riverside-San Bernardino Area , the San Diego metropolitan area , or the Sacramento metropolitan area.
Starting in the year , for the first time since the California Gold Rush , California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.
The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.
According to the United States Census Bureau in the population self-identifies as alone or in combination : . By ethnicity, in the population was Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.
As of [update] , In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,, residents.
The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,, residents.
California's Asian American population is estimated at 4. California's Native American population of , is the most of any state.
English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In , the Modern Language Association of America estimated that Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.
In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than , persons, more than any other state in the nation.
New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than , persons. California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families.
As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century.
This variety, known as California English , has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.
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