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Als Einsteiger UniversitГ¤ten England einer virtuellen Spielhalle sollten Sie darauf achten,! - Perish Reaktionen in expire neugerГјndeten Seiten man sagt, sie seien de facto beeindruckend.Email ID. England is a country in Europe. It is a country with over sixty cities in it. It is in a union with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. All four countries are in the British Isles and are part of the United Kingdom. Over 55 million people live in England. This is 84% of the population of the UK. The capital city of England is London, which is also the biggest city in the country. Other large cities in England are . England ist der größte und am dichtesten besiedelte Landesteil im Vereinigten Königreich im Nordwesten Europas. England umfasst den größten Teil des südlichen Abschnitts der Insel Großbritannien, grenzt im Norden an Schottland und im Westen an Wales und die Irische See. Im Osten grenzt das Land an die Nordsee, im Süden an den Ärmelkanal und im Südwesten an den Atlantik. London ist die Hauptstadt . England har fått sitt navn etter anglerne, den største av de germanske stammene som bosatte seg i England på og tallet. Anglerne har antagelig navn etter halvøya Angeln, som i dag er Danmark og Nord-Tyskland. (Den videre etymologien til stammens navn er fortsatt usikker, selv om en populær teori sier at man ikke trenger å lete lengre enn til selve ordet angle, og refererer da. Counties Districts Gardens Islands Parishes Places UniversitГ¤ten England Towns. English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbeinnatives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. Lindley ed. Britain The Official Handbook of the United Kingdom. Der Mangel Www Billardspiele De eigenen schöpferischen Kräften und die Abhängigkeit von kontinentalen Leistungen bestimmten die Entwicklung der Bildhauerkunst. In the FIFA World CupWilliam Hill Aktie came close again only to be knocked out in the semi-final, losing to Croatia. The term was then used Karten Mischen a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. England inkluderar även över mindre öar som Scillyöarna och Isle of Wight. Retrieved 23 March
Aschehoug, Thorleif Dahls kulturbibliotek. PMC Fritt tilgjengelig. PMID ISBN Arkivert fra originalen PDF den Focus on People and Migration PDF Report.
Office for National Statistics. After many battles, King Alfred the Great of Wessex became king of the whole of England, and the old kingdoms Mercia , Northumbria , etc.
By AD Alfred's grandson Athelstan was the king of all of England not controlled by the Danes. War with the Danes continued and from to , the king of Denmark Knut or Canute ,who died in ,and then his sons ruled England.
When King Edward the Confessor died, Harold Godwinson the Earl of Wessex became king. William the Conqueror , Duke of Normandy today part of northern France , said that Harold had promised to make William the king.
He invaded England and fought King Harold at the Battle of Hastings in William won, and became king of England. The kings of England spoke French for the next years.
There were many wars, often against France and Scotland. For several centuries the religion of England was Roman Catholicism. The bishops church leaders of England and all their churches obeyed the Pope and the church in Rome , Italy.
During the Protestant Reformation many did not agree with this. In the s, the Pope told King Henry VIII that he could not divorce his wife.
King Henry VIII created the Church of England a " Protestant " church partly so that he could divorce his wife. He made Protestantism the official church in England.
For the next years, there was struggle over whether the King or Queen of England should be "Roman Catholic" or "Protestant".
Queen Elizabeth I was Henry's second daughter. She was a powerful queen who ruled for more than 40 years. When Queen Elizabeth I died, she had no children, and in James VI of Scotland the son of Mary, Queen of Scots became King James I of England.
He called his two countries "Great Britain", but they were still separate countries with their own parliaments and laws, even though they were in personal union.
They shared the same monarch. Yes, this would make a good choice No, never mind. Thank you for helping! Middelalderens engelske utenrikspolitikk var i like stor grad formet av forholdet til Flanderns tekstilindustri som den var av de dynastiske hendelsene i det vestlige Frankrike.
Han gikk til krig mot broren Robert og erobret Normandie, som da ble underlagt England, og ikke omvendt, som tilfellet var under Vilhelm Erobreren.
Konfliktene med Maud ble hans undergang. Hans styre representerte en tilbakevending fra adelens makt til en sterk monarkisk stat i England.
Under hans styre utviklet det seg et nytt aristokrati i treenigheten England, Angevin og Aquitaine , men uten den samme selvstendige makt som det tidligere anglonormanniske aristokratiet en gang hadde.
Som konge av England var han dessuten jevnbyrdig og likestilt med den franske kongen. Rikards bror Johan som etterfulgte ham, hadde ikke den samme dyktighet i krig og statsmannskunst.
Styret til Edvard I av England var langt mer suksessfullt. Selv om det er en utbredt oppfatning at Edvard II og Gaveston var homofile , er det dog ingen konkrete historiske bevis; de var begge gift og hadde barn med sine hustruer.
Kongens fiender, inkludert kongens bror Thomas av Lancaster , angrep Gaveston i et bakhold og myrdet ham i Kongen tok flukten med sin nye yndling, Hugh Despenser.
Svartedauden var en epidemi av byllepest som spredte seg over hele Europa. Etter relativ kort tid vokste befolkningen og dekket befolkningstapet.
Edvard III var en av de mer suksessfulle engelske monarker i middelalderen. Han beseiret huset Lancaster i slaget ved Mortimer's Cross i , men ble midlertidig avsatt i tidsrommet — da Richard Neville , jarlen av Warwick, brakte Henrik VI tilbake til makten.
Han var den siste konge av huset York og den siste av huset Plantagenet. De unge guttene forsvant i august og det er antatt at de ble myrdet av den nye kongen.
Det engelske parlamentet anerkjente ham raskt som konge, men huset York var langt fra beseiret. Den statliga förvaltningen i England är dock uppdelad i nio storregioner.
Grevskapet motsvarar närmast Sveriges landsting eller storkommun. I vissa fall överensstämmer indelningen i de moderna grevskapen med den historiska.
Riksdelen har ett mildare klimat än södra Kanada trots att den ligger längre norrut. England har ett välutbyggt järnvägsnät.
Nach der Wachstumsphase des Früh- und Hochmittelalters prägte im Spätmittelalter die Pest die Entwicklung in England. Der Thronfolgeregelung Heinrichs VIII.
Die neue, protestantische Königin wurde vom Volk begeistert aufgenommen. Vom Beginn ihrer Herrschaft an war eine mögliche Heirat der Königin das bestimmende Thema.
Mehrfach forderten Parlamente sie dazu auf, mit dem Ziel, einen männlichen Thronfolger zu erhalten. Sie war verantwortlich für die Durchsetzung der Reformation, aber auch für die schlechteren Beziehungen mit Spanien.
Gesellschaft im Jahrhundert: Um war die englische Bevölkerung nach der Pest wieder auf rund drei Millionen angewachsen. Die Landbevölkerung stellte bei weitem die Mehrheit.
Allerdings verfügte London um bereits über Mit über 55 Millionen Einwohnern ist England das mit Abstand bevölkerungsreichste Land des Vereinigten Königreichs.
Die Dichte von Personen pro Quadratkilometer ist ebenfalls sehr hoch. Hierbei ist aber zu berücksichtigen, dass 8,3 Mio. Einwohner in Greater London auf nur 1,3 Prozent der Gesamtfläche leben.
Im Rest des Landes liegt die Bevölkerungsdichte bei lediglich Personen pro Quadratkilometer. In England wird überwiegend Englisch gesprochen. Es gibt zwar kein Gesetz, das besagt, dass Englisch die Amtssprache ist, aber Englisch ist die einzige Sprache, die für amtliche Zwecke verwendet wird.
Sie ist auch von internationaler Bedeutung, etwa 1,5 Milliarden Menschen auf der Welt sprechen Englisch, davon Millionen als Erstsprache.
Ab dem Jahrhundert wurde Englisch in England populär. In der englischen Renaissance wurden viele Wörter aus dem Französischen und Lateinischen übernommen.
Schätzungen zufolge sprechen Aufgrund von Einwanderung sprachen etwa Das Christentum hielt schon in der Endphase des Römischen Reiches im 1.
Jahrhundert Einzug in die damalige römische Provinz Britannia. Nach dem Rückzug der Römer und der angelsächsischen Landnahme im 4. Jahrhundert folgte eine Phase des Heidentums.
Jahrhunderts durch gregorianische Missionare unter Augustinus von Canterbury christianisiert. Die englische Kirche bewahrte sich im Mittelalter eine gewisse Distanz zu den Päpsten.
The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.
Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.
A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.
Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II , adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine.
Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.
The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.
During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.
Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.
In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.
The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship.
During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.
The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.
This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.
It was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.
Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.
After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.
This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II , some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England.
Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.
After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,  the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.
Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.
During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.
The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh. London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.
At the end of the Phoney War , Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz.
Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.
The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.
Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.
Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum , this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal , the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England : North East , North West , Yorkshire and the Humber , East Midlands , West Midlands , East , South East , South West , and London.
These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales.
England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent. The ports of London, Liverpool , and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames , Mersey and Tyne respectively.
Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.
The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers.
They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain , Somerset Levels , South Coast Plain and The Fens. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.
National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England.
They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
There are NNRs in England covering square kilometres square miles. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.
England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West.
Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.
Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests mainly plantations which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.
The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.
English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming , but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.
Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition.
Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.
England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times.
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy ,  which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
The Bank of England , founded in by Scottish banker William Paterson , is the United Kingdom's central bank.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.
The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
Much of the UK's space industry is centred on EADS Astrium , based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology , is also part of Astrium. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations.
Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton , Michael Faraday , Charles Darwin , Robert Hooke , James Prescott Joule , John Dalton , Lord Rayleigh , J.
Thomson , James Chadwick , Charles Babbage , George Boole , Alan Turing , Tim Berners-Lee , Paul Dirac , Stephen Hawking , Peter Higgs , Roger Penrose , John Horton Conway , Thomas Bayes , Arthur Cayley , G.
Hardy , Oliver Heaviside , Andrew Wiles , Francis Crick , Joseph Lister , Joseph Priestley , Thomas Young , Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins.
Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web along with HTML , the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner ,  the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.
Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.
There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
Bus transport across the country is widespread; major companies include Arriva , FirstGroup , Go-Ahead Group , National Express , Rotala and Stagecoach Group.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally.
Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.Additional Physical Format: Online version: Zimmermann, Athanasius, Universitäten Englands im jahrhundert. Freiburg im Breisgau [etc.] St. Louis, Mo. Birmingham City University (zuvor University of Central England in Birmingham) Birmingham: / (/07) University of Birmingham: Birmingham: () University of Bolton: Bolton: / (/07) Den britischen Hochschulen droht ein Milliarden-Verlust wegen wegfallender Studiengebühren von Ausländern. Besonders kleine Universitäten sind betroffen. The University of New England (UNE) is a private university in Biddeford, speed1allentown.com has additional campuses in Portland, Maine and Tangier, speed1allentown.com the – academic year, 13, students were enrolled in UNE's campus-based and online programs. As of August , there were universities in England and 5 university colleges out of a total of around in the United speed1allentown.com includes private universities but does not include other Higher Education Institutions that have not been given the right to call themselves "university" or "university college" by the Privy Council or Companies House (e.g. colleges of higher education.